Nuclear radiation research papers

Nuclear medicine has applications across a broad spectrum of disease, focussing particularly on oncology , cardiology, nephro-urology, orthopaedics, rheumatology and neuropsychiatry. Nuclear medicine therapies for lymphoma, bone, liver and neuro-endocrine malignancies are advancing rapidly. Nuclear medicine techniques in oncology can localise primary tumours, delineate extent of disease, and monitor response to treatment. Radionuclide treatment is used in hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer , palliation of bone pain, and neural crest tumours .

Radioactive materials that could cause radiation exposure near nuclear power plants are generally monitored by sampling air, food, and water supplies for radioactivity content. Radioactive emissions may be released to both air and water. The radioactive material in the air could be breathed in directly or could settle or deposit on local vegetation. Therefore, samples are taken of the air emissions and food products such as garden vegetables. Some radioactive material could also land on pasture grasses that cows eat, so milk and vegetation are sampled. Nuclear power plants near bodies of water are required to check for radioactive material in all nearby lakes, ponds, and streams, so water samples are taken from the liquid waste stream from the plant. Other water samples are taken from the nearest public water supplies. Samples of fish are caught and analyzed as well. The amount of radioactive material allowed to be released from power plants is strictly controlled by the utility and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

CANBERRA has been serving the nuclear community for over five decades. The company is the leading provider of innovative and cost-effective nuclear measurement solutions used to maintain safety of personnel, assess the health of nuclear facilities and safeguard the public and the environment. CANBERRA operates production and engineering facilities worldwide. Our 900+ employees are all focused on bringing the very best nuclear technology to your operation.

Decay heat accidents are where the heat generated by the radioactive decay causes harm. In a large nuclear reactor, a loss of coolant accident can damage the core : for example, at Three Mile Island a recently shutdown ( SCRAMed ) PWR reactor was left for a length of time without cooling water. As a result, the nuclear fuel was damaged, and the core partially melted. The removal of the decay heat is a significant reactor safety concern, especially shortly after shutdown. Failure to remove decay heat may cause the reactor core temperature to rise to dangerous levels and has caused nuclear accidents. The heat removal is usually achieved through several redundant and diverse systems, and the heat is often dissipated to an 'ultimate heat sink' which has a large capacity and requires no active power, though this method is typically used after decay heat has reduced to a very small value. The main cause of release of radioactivity in the Three Mile Island accident was a pilot-operated relief valve on the primary loop which stuck in the open position. This caused the overflow tank into which it drained to rupture and release large amounts of radioactive cooling water into the containment building .

The NRC has very specific regulations regarding 80-hour programs and clearly spells out time spent on the material as the requirement. You must spend 80 hours working on the materials. You can find the regulations here .

What that means is your 80-hour program must be a TIME based training program! As odd as it may sound, a "knowledge" based program is not sufficient.

You can't just have a "click" through program where you get x% correct and your done.

That is how many online programs are set up. It is simply easier to set up that way for those online programs. It is very difficult to build an application that monitors time. We did that because that is what the regulations say.

Your preceptor may not even be aware of it!

If you are thinking about such an online program, ask them about it!

Don't take the chance that the NRC may invalidate your training should they ever investigate those online programs!

Contact me  if you would like to talk about it further.

Steven W. Walter, .
Course Director

Nuclear radiation research papers

nuclear radiation research papers

Decay heat accidents are where the heat generated by the radioactive decay causes harm. In a large nuclear reactor, a loss of coolant accident can damage the core : for example, at Three Mile Island a recently shutdown ( SCRAMed ) PWR reactor was left for a length of time without cooling water. As a result, the nuclear fuel was damaged, and the core partially melted. The removal of the decay heat is a significant reactor safety concern, especially shortly after shutdown. Failure to remove decay heat may cause the reactor core temperature to rise to dangerous levels and has caused nuclear accidents. The heat removal is usually achieved through several redundant and diverse systems, and the heat is often dissipated to an 'ultimate heat sink' which has a large capacity and requires no active power, though this method is typically used after decay heat has reduced to a very small value. The main cause of release of radioactivity in the Three Mile Island accident was a pilot-operated relief valve on the primary loop which stuck in the open position. This caused the overflow tank into which it drained to rupture and release large amounts of radioactive cooling water into the containment building .

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